Fatigue appears physical, psychological, neurological or hormonal. in s11 you will find the latest recovery techniques that restore the player as soon as possible after training or competition.
Guidelines on protein intakes for athletes are in the range of 1.2-1.7 protein·kg-1 body mass·day-1 (1). Practically the above recommendation would translate into 90-130gr of protein per day for a 75kg soccer player. However there are no established guidelines on what the respective intake should on a meal-to-meal basis. It has recently been demonstrated that muscle protein synthesis is optimized with 20 gr of ingested protein (2, 3). When higher amounts of protein were ingested these were ultimately either oxidized or excreted (2). Therefore in the above example the maximal rate of protein synthesis may be achieved with 20-25gr of protein intake in 4-6 meals. The main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) as well as the immediate post-exercise/post-game time are the obvious choices for protein intake. Post-exercise protein ingestion promotes maximal rates of protein synthesis (4) and ameliorates the exercise-induced symptoms of muscle damage (5).
A less explored opportunity for protein intake is before bedtime. It has been demonstrated that ingesting slow-releasing casein immediately prior to bedtime stimulated a greater overnight response of muscle protein synthesis (6), whilst providing a combination of casein and casein hydrolysate in a 1:1 ratio before bed time augmented strength gains over a 12-week period of resistance training (7).
Practically the even distribution of protein intake throughout meals and the inclusion of a protein snack before bedtime could augment the recovery process through optimization of protein synthesis and reduction of exercise induced muscle damage.
- Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009; 41: 709-731.
- Witard OC, et al. Myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis rates subsequent to a meal in response to increasing doses of whey protein at rest and after resistance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr, 2014: 99: 86-95.
- Moore DR, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr, 2009: 89: 161-168.
- Churchward-Venne TA, Burd NA, Phillips SM. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism. Nutr Metabol (Lond), 2012; 9: 40.
- Jackman SR, et al. Branched-chain amino acid ingestion can ameliorate soreness from eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2010: 42: 962-970.
- Res PT, et al. (2012). Protein ingestion before sleep improves post-exercise overnight recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2012; 44: 1560-1569.
- Snijders T, et al. Protein ingestion before sleep increases muscle mass and strength gains during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy young men. J Nutr, 2015; 145: 1178-1184.
If your team provides your with a pool at the training center, you can perform recovery training in a swimming pool on the next day of a match (friendly or official) or an intense training unit.
The purpose of this form of rehabilitation is to restore the homeostasis of the body, the gradual restoration of the range of motion of the joints and the total discharge from the tension, especially of the lower limbs of the footballers. Immersion in water through hydrostatic pressure (pressure exerted on the body by water) helps to "cleanse" toxic substances that have accumulated in the body after intense exercise. The human body responds to water immersion with changes in the heart, peripheral resistance and blood flow, as well as differentiation of skin, core and muscle temperatures. Changes in blood flow and temperature can affect inflammation, immune function and the perception of fatigue.
A program of about 20'-30 'is ideal for enhancing the players' recovery process by combining swimming, playing and stretching exercises in the water.
The following program is indicative of a high level team recovery training unit in a swimming pool.
- Perform mobility exercises out of the water 5 '
- Swim in your own individual style the length of the pool 4 times.
- Perform static stretching for quadriceps and hamstrings 2x30''.
- Swim in your own individual style the length of the pool 4 times.
- Perform static stretches for hips and gastrocnemius 2x30''.
- Walk 4 times the width of the pool in its shallow part (2 front and 2 back walk).
- Choose a water game (eg head volleyball) 10'.
- Perform stretches for the whole body 5 '.
Although there is not a large number of scientific studies exploring recovery strategies for athletes, current data and unofficial data from athletes suggest that recovery of appropriate rehabilitation can help boost performance. Of course, we should keep in mind that several methods of rehabilitation can create an environment of euphoria for the players after their execution, which sometimes leads to wrong research findings.
Currently from s11, the following general recommendations can be made:
Most important is the time that will take place until the next training (and its contents) or the match. Depending on the physical capabilities (mainly VO2max) and the appropriate preparation of the footballers through training, the body can accelerate its recovery rate, restoring it to the previous level.
The human body responds to the immersion of water with changes in the heart, peripheral resistance and blood flow, as well as differentiation of the temperature of the skin, the core and the muscles. Changes in blood flow and temperature may have an effect on inflammation, immune function and fatigue.
Use appropriate temperatures and duration for immersion in water. The research data has given a positive effect on the immersion of water at temperatures of 10-15 ° C for cold water and 38-40 ° C for hot water.
The recovery strategy with cold water immersion or cold-heat contrast baths for 14-15 minutes has been shown to improve performance.
Studies that reported positive results in cold-hot variations used seven alternations of 1 minute hot and 1 minute cold.
• COMPRESSION MACHINES
Compression machines and active rehabilitation may be beneficial for "restoring" players.
The external pressure created may reduce the intramuscular space available for swelling and promote stable alignment of muscle fibres, attenuating the inflammatory response and reducing muscle soreness.
While the positive data is currently poor, there is no evidence of harmful effects on their use and the informal evidence of their support is high. Further well-controlled research is required.
Many reviews of massage results have come to the conclusion that while massage is beneficial for improving the psychological aspects of recovery, most data do not support massage as a way to improve recovery of functional performance. However, massage can have potential benefits to prevent and manage injuries.
• ACTIVE RECOVERY
The role of active recovery sessions, with low intensity running or bike, helps reduce lactate concentrations after exercise and can be a major factor for footballers, although research in this field is incomplete.
There are occasional mixed references (positive and negative) about the benefit of stretching as a recovery strategy. However, it is important to note that to date there have been no detrimental effects on the performance of footballers if they follow rehabilitation strategies related to post-exercise stretching.
Since rehabilitation research is a relatively new area for scientists, many of the current recommendations are only general guidelines. In addition to the above-mentioned strategies, there are several others not mentioned in this article (some with excessive expense).
It is important for soccer players to experiment with a variety of strategies and approaches to identify the recovery options that work best for each individual. However, it is well known that optimal rehabilitation from training and match can provide many benefits for athletes performance and achievement of team goals. The above rehabilitation strategies such as hydrotherapy, actice recovery, massage, compressive mashines, stretching or various combinations of these methods can be of value for the recovery process.
Consideration should also be given to better nutrition after exercise and adequate sleep to maximize the rate of rehabilitation of the body and reduce exercise fatigue.
Perhaps the best way to help your body come back is a well-trained athlete, a good night's sleep (hormone secretion that speeds up the body's recovery) and good hydration with regular, rich and healthy meals (glycogen stores replenishment and muscle tissue repair ).