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For s11 it very important to monitor the training load of soccer training in order to optimize a periodized plan to prevent over/de training and raise up the players performance.

In modern football to improve or maintain the endurance of the players is achieved with small sided games.

During these games with numerical correlation 7v7 6v6 5v5 4v4 push your players to spend more time into the zone of 90-95% M.H.R.

In this zone the greater adaptations in endurance are achieved, with the components of VO2max, anaerobic threshold and running economy to have significant improvements.. ..

1.Monitoring heart rate

Teams with GPS and Heart Rate Telemetry monitoring systems have the ability to analyze enough data at the end of training. A careful reading can be beneficial in improving the performance of football players or early diagnosis of problems.

It would be wise not to stay only in determining the intensity of the training based on heartbeats or only the running speed. If the same player for example not "caught" the standards that you set for this training unit as for heart rate, analyze and running intensity, as the deceleration-acceleration-change of direction that are performed during the training or the opposite.

A precise approach to training includes internal and external loads making good sports scientists at monitoring and analysis of training loads imperative nowadays ... Many modern top-level coaches follow the advice of sport scientists by giving them solutions and helping them to improve their team ...

2.Internal and External loads

As football progresses, physical abilities, strength and conditioning, are becoming more important than simple skills and talent. Few years before, it was enough to be skillful with the ball and be able to understand tactics in order to stand out at the pitch.

These days, in order to play football at the highest standard of your abilities you need to first an athlete and then a footballer. Football players are running non-stop during the games, expressing their weakness and strength according their position.

These characteristics are what the head physical coach is trying to improve during the pre-season training and in some cases, when the opportunity arises, during the season through the games or through short training sessions.

Traditional physiological tests are now used just to see if the footballers have the minimum standards in order to start the pre-season training and to monitor the rehabilitation of specific injuries. Having said that, it is important to use daily physiological monitoring equipment (e.g. GPS systems and heart rate monitoring) in order to observe the physiological changes of each of the players i.e. every day, every training session and every minute in the game, must be used in order to understand the physiological adaptations of every single player.


Achieving these physiological adaptations while maintaining athletes health, is what a physical coach should be looking for. This combination is what will help the athlete to improve. However in order to improve we need to keep our athletes on their limits of overtraining. If the athlete is not tired enough, research suggest that the adaptations to the new standards are slower. This was explained with the reduced production of free radicals. Having said that, overtraining (or over-reaching), may also slow down the process of adaptations, due to the fact that the body will shut down neuron to muscle pathway in order to activate the mechanism of over-training protection.

Therefore the role of a sport biochemist is to identify these limits and to keep the player within these fine lines, in order to determine these fine lines. Overtraining could be explained in several levels i.e. pathological, psychological, biochemical or hormonal, while hormonal being the most important.

Hormonal balance is the A to Z of kipping the body into anabolism, something very important to every athlete. Furthermore, specific hormones, like cortisol, may interfere with the good health of our intestines, which in term with cause malabsorption of the nutrients that we take through our diet or through supplementation. Cortisol balance is very important since cortisol is an anti-inflammatory, catabolic hormone.

So in order to keep a healthy athlete, we need to keep in balance the following hormones: testosterone : free testosterone : SHBG : albumin : estrogens : cortisol : prolactin.

If we manage to keep these hormones in balance, then our body becomes an anabolic machine, which means faster recovery, faster muscle gains or fat loss and increase in bone density. Having said that, maintain this balance, we reduce the chances of muscle injury dramatically.


In addition to this, when we need to increase performance, it is important, to have raised levels of testosterone, free testosterone, low levels of cortisol and and low inflammation markers (i.e. like IL-6). So the physical coach and the biochemist of the team should work closely in order to achieve the adaptations needed, but maintain the athletes in good shape in terms of hormones and inflammation markers.

3.The role of Sports Biochemistry in Modernized Football

We came to a point that we are very close to reach maximum availability of games per season and this makes the need of personalized scientific support even more important. Periodization is one of the methods that experienced fitness coaches are using in order to keep their teams in relatively good condition throughout the year. In order to keep them in good condition its important to avoid over-training and muscle injuries, something that will help the athlete to increase performance through official games and training


Biochemical periodization is one the modern methods involved in personalized periodized training. It involves the use of every single data that we can attract in order to personalized training, supplementation and nutrition which will help to have a healthy athlete. In order to make a personalized program we need to take into account aspects like: the position of the player, game minutes, predicted minutes of playing, load of training, total distance covered per game, sprints per game, heart rate monitoring, muscle imbalances, acceleration, deceleration, inflammation markers, muscle recovery rate, oxidation markers, and other biochemical markers. Through these we can adjust the individuals training load as well as the supplementation and nutrition in order to achieve better recovery, better glycogen absorption as well as better training adaptations.


We should never forget that physiological markers directly represent biological responses of the body due to external factors. The role of the scientific support team is to identify these markers, elaborate them in terms of health and performance and advice the nutritional coach, fitness coach and anybody other involved in order to personalize their programs with the goal to have the correct hormonal and biochemical profile according the time of the year.

4.Biochemical Periodization and Training Personalization in Football